In the past, the national insurgent was occupied with creating fear locally. They’re trying to say that by using past techniques they are the same. The “Mindanao Model” – using classic counter-insurgency techniques to achieve counter-terror goals – has been directed against the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and has helped force its fighters out of their traditional stronghold on Basilan. After reassessing the nature of the war and the enemy, it is now time to change the campaign plan from a counter-terrorism framework to a global counter-insurgency framework. Write. GCT MAG ADJUSTS TO THE WINDS OF CHANGE: Are You Prepared? Russia’s brutal hunt for the alleged “terrorists” in Chechnya caused the death of innocent civilians, alienated local communities and created the perfect breeding ground for radicalisation and protracted violence in the region[10]. This is what’s been perplexing the governments for years…and there’s a very good reason this. When the Governor Comes Knocking: S&W Governor [PRODUCT REVIEW/TV], THE OTHER BAD GUY: A More Sinister Threat. If no single definition of terrorism produces a precise, unambiguous description, we can approach the question by eliminating similar activities that are not terrorism, but that appear to overlap. [6] Kilcullen, D. (2010) Counterinsurgency: Oxford University Press, p. 186. Networking event in New York, NY by International Crime and Justice MA on Monday, November 18 2019 Terms in this set (12) Terrorism: premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant target by subnational groups or secret agents, usually intended to influence an audience. Third, the book sheds light on the counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency (CT-COIN) structures and mechanisms established by specific African states to contain, degrade, and eliminate terrorism, insurgency, and organised violence on the continent, particularly the successes, constraints, and challenges of the emerging CT-COIN mechanisms. The best definition for terrorism I’ve been able to find is the one by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency, although similar in certain respects, identify divergent assumptions and modalities for dealing with terrorism and insurgency. In Pakistan, there are three distinct categories of militants: the Afghan-centric Pashtun militants; the Kashmir-centric Punjabi militants; and the transnational terrorists, like al-Qaeda. What is the difference between counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism?. (2010) “Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency,” Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol. 11, p. 918. On one level they’re right. Fighting a political party that has terrorism wing is a lot easier than fighting a global jihad that has not intention of taking anything, only creating wave of hysteria and fear, often using tactics contrary to the very religion they espouse. As Insurgency and terrorism remain major threats to national security and … This new global insurgent, on the other hand, uses the terrorist to create fear and modify the actions of local governments, and the interactions between the world’s governments. The analysis is based on an extensive review of qualitative and quantitative data available on al Shabaab, two trips to East Africa, two trips to U.S. Africa Command, and extensive conversations with regional experts. Military planners started to consider terrorism and insurgency as two separate threats when terrorist groups throughout the 70s composed of alienated individuals, such as the Italian Red Brigades and the German Red Army Faction, engaged in a season of attacks without achievable aims or trying to obtain popular support[6]. US counter-terrorism abroad: Fighting terrorism or encouraging it? Retrieved from E-International Relations: https://www.e-ir.info/2010/12/21/what-is-the-difference-between-counter-insurgency-and-counter-terrorism/, p. 4. CT and COIN are neither mutually exclusive nor interchangeable. What America needs to do is implement both a counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (CS) policy. But when it comes to confronting alienated individuals determined to spread fear among the population, COIN efforts are generally ineffective. The U.S. government has made fighting terrorism a priority since the early 1970s, following the terrorist attacks on the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, and several airline hijackings. The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the security forces, military operations, personnel and logistic matters, psychological factors and public informa-tion. Global Research, March 13, 2017. Hence, CT emerged as a strategy specifically designed to isolate and disrupt terrorist organisations that, deprived of the population’s support, could be promptly detected and neutralised. Consequently, adopting the wrong strategy often strengthens the hostile movement. For the U.S. military, two such related concepts probably lead to more confusion than others. Theme: Terrorism. Consequently, understanding the difference between counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (COIN) is a precondition for effectively engaging and disrupting terrorist organisations and insurgency movements, and this understanding is underpinned by the idea that ‘counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency are [neither] mutually exclusive’ nor interchangeable[2]. In-depth Report: PAKISTAN. Categories News March 2020 Tags Law Enforcement, Security, IED, India, HME, Counter terrorism, Counter Insurgency, Bomb Making Materials, Telangana state. The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs. Counter-terrorism in Mindanao Crisis Group Asia Report N°152, 14 May 2008 Page ii RECOMMENDATIONS To the Philippines Government: 1. Consequently, strategies that rely on military operations designed to capture and kill insurgents without addressing the root causes of the insurgency are often counterproductive. [14] Pratt, S. (2010, December 21). Engagement Options in Sub‐Saharan Africa, funded and coordinated by the Strategic Multilayer Assessment Office (SMA) of the Department of Defense. What the present major type of terrorist is ignoring is that most of the “terrorist” attacks were directed at the military. Terrorist organisations cannot be disrupted through counter-insurgency techniques and insurgencies are extremely resilient to counter-terrorism strategies. of counter insurgency, a concept of operations and the coordination of a plan of action by a government at the strategic level. Spell. [1] Younyoo K., Stephen B. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. Secondly, once insurgents are alienated from the local communities and lack the protection of the greater population, they become highly vulnerable to CT strategies. Distinguishing between terrorism and insurgency is becoming increasingly challenging for policy-makers and military planners. Conversely, CT strategies adopted in insurgency scenarios alienate the population, creating the perfect breeding ground for radicalisation and political violence, indirectly strengthening the insurgency. Region: Asia, Middle East & North Africa. Afghan Special Forces seized a large cache of explosives in Ghazni. (2013) “Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Russia: Contending Paradigms and Current Perspectives,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol 36, No. serious counterinsurgency. It concludes with a section on civil affairs. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Africa: Fighting Insurgency from Al Shabaab, Ansar Dine and Boko Haram New Security Challenges: Amazon.de: Solomon, H.: Fremdsprachige Bücher It is thus not rare for governments to implement countermeasures that, without causing significant damages to the insurgents, generate civilian casualties, alienate local communities, and indirectly legitimise the insurgents in the eyes of the population. STUDY. Firstly, the massive deployment of U.S. and Iraqi soldiers provided security and support to the local communities. '1 Only a few weeks later, Gordon Brown himself made a similar argument, emphasizing that the campaign in Afghanistan was being pursued 'not out of choice but from necessity', because … If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. Although CT and COIN are not interchangeable, in certain contexts their joint action significantly improves the government’s ability to confront insurgents that implement terrorism as a tactic. Learn. Let’s move on to counterinsurgency and counterterrorism. Or, more importantly why the US government along with many others are having such a problem defining the difference between counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. The opinions expressed by the individuals in the published material do not represent the University of Glasgow, Dublin City University, Charles University, the IMSISS consortium, or its associates and partners. About Centre of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism . Match. Part of the problem, is that the terrorists depict themselves as revolutionaries, when in fact they are only terrorists. Consequently, understanding the difference between counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (COIN) is a precondition for effectively engaging and disrupting terrorist organisations and insurgency movements, and this understanding is underpinned by the idea that ‘counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency are [neither] mutually exclusive’ nor interchangeable. Unlike the American and French Revolutionary (both insurgents were occupied with home rule), yet very much like the Bolshevik Revolutionary, which saw Russia as only a first step, this terrorist is focused on the whole populace with an objective of turning the world into an Islamic state…much like the past militant Leninist and Stalinist following Marxist rhetoric. Counter-insurgency requires the use of military, political, economic, psychological and organisational action. What we have now in the new terrorists is a tool used by a new global insurgent—the religious fanatical global insurgent. Although terrorism is a long-lasting feature of political violence, counter-terrorism as a stand-alone strategy was developed during the 1970s and gained substantial importance in the post-9/11 era[4][5]. bryanna_mojica. Terrorism and insurgency are two distinct models of violent conflict. Panel 2 (October 16): Counterinsurgency and Counter-terrorism Counterinsurgency and counterterrorism are two of the most high-profile areas for capacity-building, particularly in the wake of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Many of the techniques and tactics, though with technology nowhere as advanced, have been used in terrorism in the past by “guerrilla” movements and revolutionaries, such as the American and French revolutionaries, the Viet Cong, and the Bolsheviks that created many present governments. The Centre of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism (CCICT) is conceptualized by Raksha Shakti University to be engaged in Teaching, Training, Research and Extension activities in the sphere of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism. In a time when we’re now required to arrive so many hours before departure, with full-body scans and metal detectors, it seems like a much more innocent and relaxed time in America, and International society, for that matter—cause the ruling government to respond terrorist actions by actions and laws not previously in place. [9] Kilcullen, D (2009) The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One: Oxford University Press, p. 32. This study examines the counterterrorism and counterinsurgency campaign against al Shabaab in Somalia. Unter Aufstandsbekämpfung oder auch englisch Counterinsurgency (COIN) versteht man verschiedene Taktiken und Strategien zur Bekämpfung von bewaffneten Aufständen. Efforts to weaken the al Qa'ida-linked terrorist group al Shabaab in Somalia have had some success, but the U.S. campaign there is in … Distinguishing between terrorism and insurgency presents significant challenges that policy-makers and military officials need to face. The DoD defines CT as ‘activities and operations taken to neutralize terrorists, their organizations, and networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instil fear and coerce governments or societies to achieve their goals’[7]. [Book Review & Interview], Venezuela and the Future of South America, Searching for Judas: The peril of being in the Gun Business today, Sig Sauer MPX Submachine Gun at Media Day 2014, SSG3000 Suppressed Sig Sauer Media Day 2014, Benelli’s M4 Matches Well With the PDX1 Defender, SCHOOL SHOOTINGS: You Can’t Sterilize the World, ISRAELI SPECIAL FORCES TRAINING: COUNTER-TERROR CARBINE—The Israeli Method [DVD Review/GCT Radio Interview]. The two are not mutually exclusive because if properly implemented their joint action can turn out to be highly successful in tackling terrorism and insurgency. (1993) “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. But it runs the risk of pushing them into the arms of the broader insurgencies in Mindanao, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Moro National Liberation … Terrorism must be used against civilians or other non-combatants. Created by. This is because insurgents benefit from being deeply interconnected with local communities and, when the government launches large-scale operations, they can rely on the protection from the local population to melt away and ‘go quiet’[9]. [5] See Rinehart, J. [3] United States Department of Defense (2014) Joint Publication 3-26: Counterterrorism, U.S. Government Printing Office, p. I-5. Special Operations Forces (SOFs) efficiently combined counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency tactics, engaging insurgents and neutralising their networks without inflicting large numbers of civilian casualties[12]. Terrorist organisations cannot be disrupted through COIN techniques and insurgencies are extremely resilient to CT strategies. Operations and Counterinsurgency Doctrine 358 Timothy L. Thomas 19 The Key Role of Psychological Operations in Countering Terrorism 380 Jerrold M. Post Part IV: Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20 The Contemporary Challenges of Counterterrorism Intelligence 397 Jennifer E. Sims. Insurgency, Counter-insurgency and Terrorism in Pakistan. The United States Department of Defence (DoD) in 2014 defined terrorism as ‘the unlawful use of violence or threat of violence, often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs, to instil fear and coerce governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are usually political’[3]. Part of the problem, is that the terrorists depict themselves as revolutionaries, when in fact they are only terrorists. The strategic approach adopted by the U.S. in Iraq can be divided into two phases. He explained that irregular warfare included counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, sabotage and subversion, as well as stabilization and information operations. The separation of the definition is between Al Queda and the Taliban; and the Sunnis and their ilk, and say the Hamas, which is not only a terrorist organization, but a political party. 5, p. 34-37. for a cohesive summary of the origins and evolution of counterterrorism. Or, more importantly why the US government along with many others are having such a problem defining the difference between counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. It was also the day that I was told it was exactly what the hijackers wanted to happen in the United States: effecting daily routines of the American people. Effectively implementing CoTer and CoIn, takes into the account these differences and doesn’t get sucked into focusing on CoTer when CoIn is more appropriate, and vice versa. Insurgency, counter-insurgency and terrorism in Pakistan. In these circumstances governments should implement CT strategies that emphasise military and law enforcement techniques. Insurgencies, as defined by COIN scholar David Kilcullen, are ‘organised, protracted politico-military struggles designed to weaken the control and legitimacy of an established government, occupying power, or other political authority while increasing insurgent control’[8]. [12] Kilcullen, The Accidental Guerrilla, p. 115-185. The Islamic global terrorist, on the other hand is focused on simply creating mayhem and fear amongst the populace…and that includes not only in the US, Russia and Europe, but within the Islamic nations, such as Arabia, Afghanistan and Iraq. They’re trying to say that by using past techniques they are the same. The school's motto is to "fight the guerrilla like a guerrilla". So counter-terrorism is any efforts to suppress or prevent terrorism, while the counter-insurgency is efforts to suppress resistance to the established power. Moscow’s failure to understand that insurgency, and not terrorism, was the defining character of the two Chechen Wars led to the implementation of counter-terrorism strategies that turned a contained rebellion into a widespread jihadi insurgency. Firstly, population-centric COIN approaches sever the link between insurgents and population. Flashcards. 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